I’m on Lexicon Valley explaining the subtle differences between the five different t sounds in English using internet puns (including “free tudoring” and “moist owlet” — thanks, tumblr!). 

For the sake of readability, I didn’t use much phonetics/phonology vocabulary on the Lexicon Valley post, so I’m going to link up the technical terms with the explanation here instead. Warning: what follows below is rather dense: you should read it in conjunction with the fun version

The general phenomenon of there being multiple versions of a sound (such as /t/) that you don’t notice is called allophony. The idea of /t/ in general is the phoneme, written in slashes //,and its variants are its allophoneswritten in square brackets [ ]. One of the things that distinguishes allophones is that they’re often found in predictable environments. For example:

  • Flapped/tapped t (IPA [ɾ]), as in “tutor”, is found between two vowels (intervocalically), when the second vowel isn’t stressed.
  • Glottalized t (IPA [t] with superscript ʔ or just glottal stop [ʔ]), as in bottle or button, is found in codas.
  • Unreleased t (IPA [t̚]), as in “moist” (sometimes), is optional and found at the end of a word (word-finally).
  • Aspirated t (IPA [t] with superscript h), as in “towel” or “participant”, is found at the beginnings of words (word-initially) for monosyllabic words, or at the beginnings of stressed syllables in general.
  • (not included in the article) Dental t (IPA [t̪]), as in “eighth”, is found before the voiceless dental fricative θ (in principle, dental d [d̪] could be found before ð but I’m not sure if there are any actual examples of this. Dental n, [n̪] is found before both θ and ð, as in “lengthen” although n before θ probably also gets devoiced). 

Flapping/tapping is a process that also happens with /d/, unreleasing is something that can happen with any stop /p t k b d g/, aspiration happens with voiceless stops /p t k/, and dentalization could happen with any alveolar, especially the stops /t d n/, but even maybe /s z l/. (Hey, notice how each of these are different natural classes!) Glottalization I don’t know as much about since it isn’t in my dialect, but I think it might be restricted to /t/…any Brits want to weigh in?

An analogy often used for allophones is Clark Kent vs Superman


In 1306 an Ethiopian delegation came to Europe to seek an alliance with the “King of the Spains” against the Moslems. King Anfós IV of Aragon considered arranging a double marriage with the Negus of Ethiopia in 1428. And the Portuguese sent Pedro de Corvilhao to Ethiopia in 1487 on a similar mission.

Meanwhile the actual living experience of blacks in Europe appeared to be marked by smooth integration into European society, with the role of lower-class blacks determined very much by that of their masters or employers. The 140,000 slaves imported into Europe from Africa between 1450 and 1505 were a welcome new labor force in the wake of the Bubonic Plague.

On the whole, the blacks in Christian Iberia were not limited to servile roles; but they were also not influential as a group. The new slave population in Portugal worked in agriculture and fishing. Free blacks living in Loulé and Lagos in the southern edge of Portugal owned houses and worked as day laborers, midwives, bakers, and servants. Most were domestic servants, laborers (including those on ships and river craft), and petty tradesmen.

Some free blacks, especially women, became innkeepers. Blacks in Spain served as stevedores, factory workers, farm laborers, footmen, coachmen, and butlers. Male and female domestics apparently lived well compared to other lower-class people. Slaves could work in all the crafts, but could not join the guilds.

A few Africans active in the Americas during the early Iberian expansion were among returnees to Portugal and Spain from America and Africa from the 16th to the 18th centuries. These included free mulatto students, clerics, free and slave household servants, sailors, and some who attained gentlemen’s status. The use of many black women slaves as domestics and concubines led to mulatto offspring who received favored treatment, and in some instances, attained middle-class and even aristocratic status.

Problems in Studying the Role of Blacks in Europe by Allison Blakeley via, American Historical Association (via medievalpoc)



today I learned that in the 1600s the Pasha of Algiers made it a capital offense to remove one’s thumbs from one’s girdle while having an argument, in an attempt to limit brawling. as a result, street fights are reported to have become a combination…



Hey guys!! I’m making this post for all of the other students/college students who are like me.
I have a really hard time keeping track of my homework assignments for each class/when they’re due, and sometimes that causes me to get assignments done late because I start jumbling up when shit for which class is due. I know paper agendas are a thing, but sometimes I have projects that aren’t due for weeks, so having when it was assigned 3 pages back isn’t going to help me remember it/keep track of when I should do it.

However! I found this nifty website called!!!

Basically, you can input your classes/class times, and your homework, and set when your homework is due, and it will sort out when you need to get your homework done, and even tell you if you’re late on any of your assignments. It’s even color coded!

You can even set it to when it should remind you to work on your specific homework assignment, set certain assignments to different priorities, and even highlights ones that are due soon (see the one up there that’s in orange, since it’s 2:30am here, that’s technically due today OTL).

 I didn’t even have to make an account, I just hooked it up to my facebook account because I’m a lazy motherfucker!!!!

But yeah you guys should give it a shot if you’re like me and have a really hard time keeping track of homework/when you should work on it/scheduling in general, and paper agendas aren’t flipping the bill.